Formate brines make safe and reliable solids-free well control fluids for any well operation. The absence of weighting solids in formate brines brings economic benefits to all well operations, from drilling through to completion, workover, well suspension and well stimulation.  The absence of weighting solids also makes formate brines easy to recycle and reuse time after time. The formate brines were originally developed by Shell as high-performance drilling and completion fluids for deep HPHT wells. Using solids-free formate brines brings huge technical and economic advantages in all deep well operations

Formate brines make safe and reliable solids-free well control fluids for any well operation. The absence of weighting solids in formate brines brings economic benefits to all well operations, from drilling through to completion, workover, well suspension and well stimulation. The absence of weighting solids also makes formate brines easy to recycle and reuse time after time. The formate brines were originally developed by Shell as high-performance drilling and completion fluids for deep HPHT wells. Using solids-free formate brines brings huge technical and economic advantages in all deep well operations.

Choline Chloride can be used as a clay stabilizer, whose function it is to prevent clay swelling in the shale rocks and minimize the migration of clay fines and can replace materials such as quaternary ammonium salts and KCl.

Superior performance and use at much lower levels (0.3–1% vs 2% for KCl, depending upon the mineralogy of the formation).

Compatibility with brine, calcium chloride, KCl solutions as well as all known fracturing fluids, cross-linkers and breakers

Minimal chemical handling. Choline chloride and choline bicarbonate are non-toxic, low viscosity liquids, readily available to be used directly at the site of use.

Choline chloride and choline bicarbonate are high active, clay stabilizer liquids with an activity of 75%. This highly soluble material can be used in all environments and does not suffer from crystallization issues when used in a brine solution in cold climates (KCl has a limiting 24% activity and can crystallize in cold climates).

Use of choline chloride can reduce the amount of chloride present by up to 75% vs. KCl. Choline