Propionates are the preservatives of choice when it comes to reliable food safety for bakery items. For yeast leavened products calcium propionate (E282), is the standard product of choice as it efficiently inhibits moulds and rope forming bacteria while having a minimal impact on yeast activity. As a food additive, it is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products.
Sodium Benzoate is a widely used as food preservative, with E number E211. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. Benzoic acid occurs naturally at low levels in cranberries, prunes, greengage plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and apples. Typically used at 0,1%, Sodium Benzoate serves as effective preservative in acidic conditions around ph level.
Benzoic acid is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. Benzoic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and some bacteria. It is either added directly or created from reactions with its sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95%. The efficacy of benzoic acid and benzoate is thus dependent on the pH of the food. Acidic food and beverage like fruit juice (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbon dioxide), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), pickles (vinegar) or other acidified food are preserved with benzoic acid and benzoates.
SP is an effective inhibitor of the growth of certain molds and some bacteria in bakery goods. It is usually preferred in non-yeast leavened bakery products because the calcium ions’ of calcium propionate interfere with the chemical leavening agents. In those bakery products, such as cakes, tortillas, pie fillings etc., chemically leaved agents are used (e.g. baking powder). SP is easy to handle and easy to incorporate into flour.
Citric acid is used as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages, especially soft drinks. Within the European Union it is denoted by E number E330. Citric acid can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or in recipes in place of fresh lemon juice. Citric acid can be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye. Other characteristics of citric acid anhydrous and monohydrate include:
– Non-toxicity and low reactivity
– Chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures
Potassium sorbate is used to inhibit molds and yeasts in many foods, such as cheese, wine, yogurt, dried meats, apple cider, soft drinks and fruit drinks, and baked goods. Potassium Sorbate can not only effectively inhibit the activity of molds, yeasts and aerobic bacteria, but also prevent the growth and reproduction of botulinum, staphylococcus, salmonella and other harmful microorganisms. Potassium Sorbate belongs to acidic preservatives. It still have a good anticorrosive effect in the near neutral (pH6.0-6.5) food, while the preservative effect of benzoic acid (and sodium benzoate) decreases when the pH is higher than 4.
Lactic acid bacteria have been used to ferment or culture foods for at least 4000 years. They are used in particular in fermented milk products from all over the world, including yoghurt, cheese, butter, buttermilk, kefir and koumiss. Lactic acid occurs naturally in many food products. It has been in used as an acidifier, peservative and pH regulator. There are many properties of lactic acid which make it a very versatile ingredient in the food industry. It has a pronounced preservative action, and it regulates the microflora. It has been found to be very effective against certain type of microorganisms. Combination of lactic acid and acetic acid gives synergic effects in antibacterial activity.
Lactic acid is a natural sourdough acid, which gives the bread its characteristic flavor, and therefore it can be used for direct acidification in the production of sourdough. Typically, salt-like crystals found on the outside of some cheese will be calcium lactate. In many cases, this method provides a low level of bitterness in comparison with other products. It has been used as a food thickener and preservative in fruits and as baking soda. Another application of calcium lactate is acid regulator by maintaining pH levels.