Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated as DMF (although this acronym is sometimes used for dimethylfuran), this colourless liquid is miscible with water and the majority of organic liquids. DMF is a common solvent for chemical reactions.
N-Ethylpyrrolidone (NEP) as an aprotic and highly polar organic solvent is completely miscible with water and is used as a replacement for N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) in many application fields such as the coatings industry and cleaning applications due to its very similar solvent properties. Further application fields for NEP include the pharmaceutical and electronic industries.
N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is the lactam of 4-methylaminobutyric acid and a very weak base. NMP is a chemically stable and powerful polar solvent. These characteristics are highly useful in a variety of chemical reactions where an inert medium is of concern. Despite the stability of NMP, it can also play an active role in certain reactions: hydrolysis, oxidation, condensation, conversion with chlorinating agents, polymerization and o-alkylation, and related reactions.